Head injury can range from injury to scalp or bone to bleeding inside the brain.
Types of Head Injury are:
a) Scalp laceration, abrasion or hematoma.
b) Skull Fracture: Undisplaced or compound
c) Concussion injury or minor bleed inside the brain but patient is conscious, sleepy or irritable.
a) Injury to the brain is significant and a patient is unconscious but not in a coma.
b) Small hematoma inside skull or brain, which may not need surgery.
c) Associated scalp and skull injury.
3 Severe head Injury:
a) Serious injury to brain parenchyma which can be hematoma inside or outside the brain or inside ventricle.
b) Diffuse Axonal Injury.
c) The patient is in the coma.
d) Associated scalp/skull injury
Reasons for Head Injury:
1) Road traffic accidents.
2) Fall from a height
4) Penetrating injury- Bullet or knife or rod
5) Blast injury
6) Sudden jerk (in Extremes of ages)
Types of Hematoma in Brain:
1. An extra dural hematoma is between skull and membrane protecting the brain called as Dura Meter.
2. Subdural Hematoma.
- Acute – solid blood between dura mater and brain. Usaully associate with brain injury
- Chronic – fluid seen in elderly.
3. Sub arachnoids bleed blood within crevices of a brain.
4. Contusion – blood within the brain parenchyma inter spread with damaged brain.
5. Intraventricular: may lead to hydrocephalus (increase in amount and pressure of CSF inside brain)